As a known fact, the human sensory perceptions such as vision and hearing have some limitations. For example, the human eye can perceive the light within the visible spectrum ranging from Violet with a wave length of 400 nm to Red with a wave length of 650 nm. Similarly, the sound within the range of 20 Hz – 20,000 Hz is only audible to the human ear.
Though the human senses have some limitations, one can develop sensitivity and efficacy of those senses with the proper involvement of mind and feeling. For example the taste of an apple gulped in busy scheduled day, definitely differs from a crispy bite of the same apple while relaxing on a comfortable couch with a cool breeze from your garden which carries the fresh fragrance of gracious flowers. So the perception of a sense is enhanced with the proper union of mind. The same principle was propounded by ancient Yoga too.
The human when he unites his endeavor with a feeling or a pure, untainted, unbiased thought power, he can perceive the whole universe as a place of knowledge, support, motivation and wisdom beyond the physical limitations.
The ancient Yoga explained different techniques to purify a thought, feeling and other activities of mind. The saints and sages with a great knowledge of mind alchemy (Mano Veda ) reached a state where they can perceive the great wisdom from celestial sound called Naada. The Naada, omnipotent, omnipresent sound, which has no limits, is called “Veda”.
“Anantaah Vai Vedaah” is a Vedic phrase, which means Vedas are innumerous. Vedas are not merely drafts or scripts. Among those myriad vibrations, saints grasped few of them with “Divya Karana or channeling” and phrased them as Vedic Mantras. So the whole Veda is not preserved in the form of Vedic Mantras. Based on properties of Vedic mantras, Veda is organized and categorized into 4 types. They are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Saama Veda and Atharvana Veda.
The Four Vedas contain 20,500 mantras and 1028 sookthas in total. In Kruta Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga the human, with a healthy physical body, pure mind and with power of penance studied and experienced all 20,500 mantras and 1028 sookthas. But now-a-days the human capability decreased in all levels. It’s almost impossible to study and memorize all mantras with their explanation.
Vedas and Upa Vedas (means sub Vedas):
Major Vedas are four:
1. Rig Veda
2. Yajur Veda
4. Atharva Veda
Each major veda contains one sub veda called Upa Veda.
1. Rig Veda- Ayur Veda
2. Yajur Veda- Dhanur Veda
3. SamaVeda- Gaandharva Veda
4. Atharva Veda- Artha Sastra
1. Ayur Veda is sub veda of Rig veda. Ayur Veda is holistic medical system. It deals with treatment methods in different levels like for body and mind to attain a pure and holistic life mode.
2. Dhanur Veda is Archery.
3. Gaandharva Veda is science of music and singing.
4. Artha Sastra is Economics.
Branches of Vedas that available now:
Kanwa Sakha of in North India
Maadhyandina Sakha in South India
Krihsna Yajur Veda:
Taitteereeya Sakha in South India
Maitrayini sakha in Maharaashtra
Talavara Sakha in Tamil Nadu
Karnakataraanaayaneeya Sakha in Gujarat
Kouthuma Sakha in Kerala
This Veda and its branches are almost extinct, after lots of research one scholar found in Cinore, Gujarat with great knowledge of Atharva Veda.
Time of Vedas
After several thousands of years of Sruti lineage/ parampara, some great saints such as Veda Vyasa gave written form to Vedas. So, it is inappropriate to calculate the age of Vedas based on these scriptures. Some modern writers explain that the Vedas are 5,000 years old. The same authors also stated that Dwaraka, the place of Lord Krishna from Dwapara Yuga, was also 5,000 years old. But the Vedas were in practice from Sathya Yuga and Treta Yuga. So it is obvious that Vedas are older than 5,000 years.